Women's Health Guide

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Overall women live longer and tend to be healthier than men. However, women can do more to manage and safeguard their health.

In this guide, we explore the main threats to women’s health and identify ways women can live healthier.

By Allianz Worldwide Care | August 01, 2017

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Female health risks vary depending on the life stage a woman is at. The biggest threats to a woman’s health are often preventable, so making healthy lifestyle choices can go a long way toward preventing illness.

Women must take charge of their health and their healthcare, at all life stages. They must educate themselves on health issues, pay attention to their bodies,  and speak with their doctors regularly.

Women’s health – life stages

Women's life stages are based on the reproductive cycle, beginning with menstruation and ending with menopause.

Different health issues may be more relevant to women’s lives depending on their life stage. Physical and social circumstances at each stage influence both physical and mental health, and the ability to maintain health. 

Young Women

During puberty, the series of changes young women undergo are often accompanied by emotional turmoil.

Mental health issues are a concern at this life stage, with young women experiencing high psychological distress at almost twice the rate of young men.

Self-awareness regarding body image can lead some young women into risky health behaviours, for example eating disorders.

It is important for young women to visit their doctor regularly and practice good health habits, as the choices they make in their early years will impact on their future health.

Reproductive Years

For women in their reproductive years, family planning, pregnancy, and child birth are prominent health issues.

At this stage in life women should educate themselves on risks associated with sexual activity, and protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies.

Balancing work and family commitments can have a significant impact on women’s physical and mental health, particularly since women still take on a higher proportion of caring responsibilities.

During the reproductive years women should make record of their family health history and continue to develop good health habits.


In middle-aged women, symptoms of menopause and other life stage factors can affect mental and physical health.

Prevalent health issues at this life stage, include anxiety and depression, musculoskeletal diseases and breast cancer.

Mid-life is a time when increasing pressure of juggling work, family and aging parents can take a toll on health. It is vital that middle-aged women learn to take time to themselves, and develop coping skills for dealing with life’s ups and downs.

Older women

Women in older years still lead vital, active lives, but now they need to monitor their health even closer.

Older women are more likely than older men to be widowed, live alone or in residential care, suffer from more chronic illness and have higher rates of disability.

Women in this stage must visit their doctor regularly and have all recommended health screenings. When diagnosed early many illnesses are treatable.

It is now that the adherence to a healthy lifestyle in earlier life stages will pay dividends. Remember healthy lifestyle choices will help a woman feel her best at every stage in life.

Leading health threats for women

While some risk factors for leading health threats in women can’t be eliminated, other risks can be controlled and early warning signs detected.

Women must educate themselves on the greatest risks to their health, and understand that many chronic health conditions are preventable.

Heart Disease

Heart or cardiovascular disease refers to conditions related to the process of atherosclerosis, where plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This build up narrows the arteries, forcing the heart to work harder to pump blood, and potentially stopping blood flow if a clot forms.

Blocked blood vessels can lead to chest pain,  heart attack or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect the heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.

8.6 million women worldwide die from heart disease each year. Of those who have heart attacks, 42% die within a year. When a woman under 50 has a heart attack, it's twice as likely to be fatal as a heart attack in a man under 50.

While many women may be unaware that they suffer from heart disease until a health incident occurs, there are red flags they should be aware of to better detect heart problems during the earliest and most treatable phases.

Possible symptoms of heart disease

Breathlessness after moderate exercise
Chest pain
Tiring easily
Pain or tingling in the upper extremities
Fluttering in the chest
Light-headedness or dizziness

Risk factors for heart disease

High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Diabetes and prediabetes
Being overweight or obese
Being physically inactive
Having a family history of early heart disease
Unhealthy diet

Heart disease is easier to treat when detected early. If you are experiencing any of the symptoms of heart disease, you have a family history of heart disease or you are concerned about your heart health, talk to your doctor about steps you can take to reduce your heart disease risk.

Chronic lower respiratory disease

Women are more vulnerable than men to lung damage putting them at increased risk of illness from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including bronchitis and emphysema.

COPD manifests differently in women than men, resulting in more women dying each year from the disease.

Possible symptoms of COPD

Shortness of breath
Chest tightness
Chronic cough
Blue lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis)
Swelling in ankles, feet or legs
Frequent respiratory infections
Lack of energy

Risk factors for COPD

Exposure to tobacco smoke
Exposure to dusts and chemicals
Exposure to fumes from burning fuel
Increasing age
Swelling in ankles, feet or legs
Frequent respiratory infections
Lack of energy

Alzheimer’s disease

Several studies have indicated that women have a much higher risk of Alzheimer's than men. This may be due to the female hormone oestrogen, which has properties that protect against the memory loss that accompanies aging. When a woman reaches menopause, reduced levels of oestrogen may play a role in her increased risk of developing Alzheimer's.

Possible symptoms of Alzheimer’s

Increased memory loss and confusion
Problems recognising family and friends
Inability to learn new things
Difficulty carrying out multistep tasks such as getting dressed
Impulsive behaviour

Risk factors for Alzheimer’s

Increasing age
Family history
High blood pressure
High cholesterol


Osteoporosis is a condition characterised by a decrease in the density of bone, decreasing its strength and resulting in fragile bones. 

It affects more women than men, as women have smaller, thinner bones than men. Oestrogen decreases when women reach menopause, which can cause bone loss, so the chance of developing osteoporosis increases as women reach menopause.

Despite this women can help prevent osteoporosis through diet and lifestyle. The behaviours that women develop in early life play a significant role in the development of the disease.

Risk factors for osteoporosis

Increasing age
Small frame
Family history
Diet low in calcium and vitamin D
Sedentary lifestyle
Excessive alcohol

Talk to your doctor about your possible risk of osteoporosis, and what you can do to prevent problems.


Early detection of the main cancers affecting women is crucial for successful treatment and recovery. Regular screening can assist early detection, increasing the likelihood of a positive outcome.

It is vital that women make themselves aware of the symptoms of common  female cancers and understand the risk factors.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women.

Possible symptoms of breast cancer

Lump in the breast
Swelling in part of or the entire breast
Skin irritation or dimpling
Breast or nipple pain
Nipple inversion
Nipple discharge

Risk factors for breast cancer

Increasing age
Family history
Race – white women are at increased risk
Excessive alcohol
High fat diet
Sedentary lifestyle

Talk with your doctor about your risk and how you can help prevent breast cancer with appropriate screening.

Regular mammograms are crucial, but as mammograms do not find every breast cancer, it is important for women to be aware of changes in their breasts and to know the signs and symptoms of breast cancer.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, killing more women each year than breast cancer, uterine cancer, and ovarian cancer combined.

While lung cancer diagnoses have been decreasing for men, they are staying relatively stable for women.

Possible symptoms of lung cancer

Persistent cough
Coughing up blood
Chest pain
Back pain

Risk factors for lung cancer

Exposure to second hand smoke
Exposure to radon gas and asbestos

Mental health

Women are more prone than men to experience anxiety and depression, at any age. Although the reasons why women experience higher levels of depression are unknown, many experts believe the pressures of balancing work and family responsibilities, including children as well as aging parents, may lead to added mental health burdens.

Although death by suicide is higher for men, attempted suicide rates are higher for women

Helping educate women to mental health issues, and giving them the confidence to seek assistance and speak to their doctor, is vital.

Warning signs of mental health issues

Persistent sadness or feelings of hopelessness
Becoming socially withdrawn
Suffering a recent life crisis
Personality changes
Feelings of worthlessness
Alcohol or drug abuse
Frequent thoughts about death
Dramatic changes in eating or sleeping habits
Extremely high and low moods
Decreased energy or fatigue
Excessive fear or worry
Thoughts of suicide

Preventative steps

You can’t just ‘get over’ depression, it is disease which can be conquered by reaching out for some help.

Talk to your doctor
Talk to family and friends
Exercise, eat well and get plenty of sleep
Don’t ignore stress – it may be hard to avoid, but it can be dealt with
Know your limits – it is ok to ask for help
Don’t self-medicate – don’t turn to alcohol, tobacco or drugs


Regardless of the life stage a woman is at, prevention is key to attaining and maintaining good health. Women must take time to look after themselves and be aware of lifestyle adjustments that have significant positive impacts on overall health, reduce health risk, warn about potential problems and increase longevity.

Small steps can keep women on a healthier path:

Be more physically active

Making time for physical activity is very important for overall health. Maintaining a physically active lifestyle and a healthy weight reduces the risk associated with many physical and mental illnesses including, heart disease, diabetes and depression.

Aim to be active for at least 30 minutes every day with these practical tips:

Try cycling, jogging or walking part of the journey to work
Always take the stairs or walk up the escalator
Get active at lunchtime – try walking or jogging with a colleague
Allocate some time every evening for exercise – it’s good for body and mind

Eat a healthier diet

A healthy balanced diet is essential for overall health.  A main meal should consist of three-quarters vegetables, beans or grains and one-quarter meat, fish or protein, try to choose water over other beverages.

Reduce salt intake and try to avoid too many sugar rich and processed foods.

Most fruit and veg contains necessary nutrients, is low in calories and is high in fibre, ideal for maintaining or attaining a healthy weight. Aim to eat at least 5 portions of fruit and veg per day with these practical tips:

Add bananas or berries to breakfast cereal
Cook more meals from scratch
Blend vegetables and beans to make soups and sauces
Keep a well-stocked and easily accessible fruit bowl

Drink alcohol in moderation

A glass of wine with dinner or a pint of beer after work can become a normal part of day-to-day life.

As well as contributing to unhealthy weight gain, alcohol has been linked to several chronic diseases, including some cancers.

It’s ok to have an occasional drink, but aim to drink in moderation with these practical tips:

Drink slowly – enjoy your drink and avoid downing it too quickly
Drink smaller measures
Finish a drink before topping up – helps keep track of quantity consumed
Dilute drinks – add tonic water to spirits or lemonade to lager
Drink a glass of water between alcoholic drinks

Stop smoking

If you smoke, stop today. Cigarette smoking damages almost every organ of the body, causes many diseases, and reduces the health of smokers in general.

On average, smokers will die 10 years earlier than non-smokers. By quitting, smokers lower their risk for smoking-related diseases and can add years to their lives.

Speak with your doctor or local smoking cessation group for advice and help on quitting.

Learn to relax

Not dealing with stress from work, family, relationships or finances can cause or worsen physical conditions.

Women must equip themselves with healthy strategies for coping with life's ups and downs.

Get adequate sleep every night
Practice mindfulness
Practice controlled breathing
Always ask for help when needed
Talk to your doctor or someone you trust if you find stress overwhelming

Don't feel overwhelmed by women's health risks. Instead, do what you can to ensure you lead a healthy lifestyle. Simple preventive measures can go a long way toward reducing your health risks.

Education on health risks, helping women adopt healthy lifestyles early on and access to quality healthcare are key to a long and healthy life.

It is important that women attend regular routine check-ups with their doctor, let the doctor know if they are experiencing any changes (no matter how insignificant) and speak with the doctor about preventative tests.

“Make use of the comprehensive insurance coverage of preventative care that Allianz Worldwide Care offers – it is updated regularly to include all internationally recognised and cutting edge measures to stay healthy and lead a happy and worry free life.”

Dr Ulrike Sucher, Medical Director, Allianz Worldwide Care.